Read the TechNews Online at: http://technews.acm.org
ACM TechNews
October 13, 2006

MemberNet
The ACM Professional Development Centre
Unsubscribe

Welcome to the October 13, 2006 edition of ACM TechNews, providing timely information for IT professionals three times a week.

Sponsored by
Learn more about Texis, the text-oriented database 
providing high-performance search engine features combined with SQL 
operations and a development toolkit, that powers many diverse 
applications, including Webinator and the Thunderstone Search Appliance.
Learn more about Texis, the text-oriented database providing high-performance search engine features combined with SQL operations and a development toolkit, that powers many diverse applications, including Webinator and the Thunderstone Search Appliance.


HEADLINES AT A GLANCE:

 

Election Integrity Organizations, Leaders Urge States to Plan for Emergency Paper Ballots, Procedures for November Election
U.S Newswire (10/13/06)

Letters were sent out on Friday to all 50 governors, secretaries of state, and directors of elections, asking that they provide emergency paper ballots for the upcoming general election and for these to count as regular, not provisional, ballots. Over 50 election integrity groups and individuals including Robert F. Kenney Jr., Sen. John Kerry, Rep. Rush Holt, Leon County, Florida election supervisor Ion Sancho, and computer scientist Doug Jones signed the letter. The call for paper ballots is a response to the primaries when many electronic voting machines, which will be used by 80 percent of voters in the upcoming election, malfunctioned and voters were given provisional ballots that may not have been counted or even sent home. Brad Friedman, investigative journalist and co-founder of velvetrevolution.us says, "No legally registered voter should ever be sent away from the polls without being able to cast their vote. With these new electronic voting machines failing across the country, it's just common sense to make sure there are back-up plans and procedures in place." Congress recently failed to pass a bill that would have reimbursed states for the cost of emergency paper ballots. Maryland Republican Gov. Robert Erlich has called for statewide paper ballots after the problems during the primaries.
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


How to Say 'Don't Shoot' in Iraq
InternetNews.com (10/13/06) Hickins, Michael

IBM has developed a translation system that allows U.S. forces to speak directly to Iraqis in plain, conversational language. The system, dubbed the Multilingual Automatic Speech-to-Speech Translator (MASTOR), will be loaded onto laptops and consists of two microphones. Users speak into one of the microphones to have their voice translated by the computer using algorithms that take into account pitch, dialect, and health or emotional status, and then said aloud in the language of the other person they are speaking with. MASTOR also creates a textual account of conversations. Previous speech-to-speech technology required the use of set phrases, but MASTOR is able to process any speech and figure out what is meant and convey the meaning. "This is not a weapon. The world has been divided and had so much conflict, and so much of that has been because of language barriers," says Yuqing Gao, manager of the speech recognition and understanding research group at IBM Research. MASTOR is able to translate a vocabulary of over 50,000 English words and 100,000 Iraqi Arabic words. MASTOR is part of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's (DARPA) Spoken Language Communication and Translation System for Tactical Use (TRANSTAC). The technology is a response to the limited supply of military linguists, and is available in English to Modern Standard Arabic, and English to Mandarin Chinese.
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


Safe Internet Requires Total Network Security, Prof. Says
Wisconsin Technology Network (10/11/06) Plas, Joe Vanden

As Internet security threats change from being recognition-driven to being profit-driven, entire networks must be secured. Those writing malicious code are becoming increasingly motivated and innovative. "It is very clear now that there are people who are making a lot of money by malicious activity, that organized crime is getting involved in malicious activity, and this represents a very, very serious development from the standpoint that it also means that the bad guys are getting much more organized and focused in their activities," says Paul Barford, assistant professor in the University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Computer Sciences and the school's Advance Internet Laboratory. With hacking software becoming increasingly easier to use for less-than-professionals, businesses must change their approach to security. Simply using firewalls and security software is no longer enough, even with such products becoming more automated and easier to use. What is needed to combat the rising threat is a combination of security that is present at all levels, placing barrier after barrier in the way of potential hackers, says security architect Mark Hartmann. "It's security in depth. Every device has its own role to play in security, from a laptop, to the network, to your firewall, to your applications," Hartmann says. At the Advanced Internet Laboratory, Barford leads a research team working on various projects that could lead to an improved Internet that can defend itself against attacks. The group's DOMINO project is focused on intrusion detection and monitoring, while the Global Environment for Network Innovations (GENI) project is tracking malicious activity. Barford says that "right now we have a significant lack of deployment of security in networks, and as we move forward with deploying the latest technology in networks, the wholistic approach to security is something that's really going to solve a lot of problems."
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


SC06 Announces HPC Analytics Challenge Finalists
Business Wire (10/10/06)

This year's HPC Analytics Challenge has been whittled down to three finalists to demonstrate cutting-edge data analysis techniques that can be used to solve difficult, real-world problems. Researchers from Carnegie Mellon University, the University of California, Davis, the University of Texas at Austin, and the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center will show a 1,024-processsor simulation of an earthquake in real time and on the fly from a remote laptop computer. A team from Osaka University, Japan's National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Osaka University Dental Hospital, and the National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research at the University of California, San Diego, will present an E-science infrastructure that can be used to gather speech sound from computer speech simulations. And researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will show an end-to-end solution for turning biological data into knowledge for applications in minutes. The SC06 Analytics Challenge will take place Tuesday, Nov. 14, during the SC2006 international conference. ACM and IEEE are sponsoring the supercomputer conference, which is scheduled for Nov. 11-17, 2006, in Tampa. "The response to this year's challenge has been fantastic, with interest from all over the globe, and in eight distinct areas of technology," says Paul Fussell, co-chair of the SC06 Analytics Challenge. "The diversity and quality of the finalist submissions reflects what we have seen throughout the Challenge: every entry was noteworthy." For more information about SC06, or to register, visit http://www.sc-conference.org/
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


Geek Speak Birdles Information Security
Computerworld Australia (10/12/06) Gedda, Rodney

At this year's Australian Unix Users Group (AUUG) conference in Melbourne on Wednesday, software developers discussed the negative effects that a lack of usability has on cybersecurity. "A lot of the security stuff is designed by crypto geeks [and] because of a lack of usability, people can't apply them correctly," said University of Auckland computer scientist Peter Gutmann. Gutmann notes that a good deal of security standards were composed 10 years ago, without usability in mind, and have only been tweaked since then. "They would rather have 100 percent perfect software that's unusable than 99 percent perfect software that is usable," said Gutmann. Open BSD developer Ryan McBride spoke out against intrusion detection systems, saying the technique has no ability of detecting whether a virus is attacking or not. "I do IDS work for a Fortune 50 company and it's a case of 'Oh look, another box has a virus--go turn it off'...It's very hard to automate turning things off in security," McBride says. He believes the problem must be solved within the software, not IDS. An enormous amount of the body of modern software is not safe, and people continue to use it, says Dr. Lawrie Brown, University of NSW School of IT senior lecturer. She adds that most people see computers as relatively new and do not understand the necessity of information security measures.
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


Managing Knowledge for the New Economy
IST Results (10/12/06)

Two EU research projects have been established to provide access to critical business information and to help employees and companies with skill-set management. The APOSDLE project is intended to aid employees by gathering all of the knowledge capital available in the workplace. Resources utilized include databases, publications, presentations and documents, lists of courses available, access to company documents, and the insight of experienced employees. "APOSDLE will work in the background, intuiting what information the employee needs and then providing a menu of resources," says Stefanie Lindstaedt, scientific coordinator for the APOSDLE project. "A worker might see the name of a colleague who is an expert in her area of interest. She could record an interview with the colleague, and the recording itself would become a new resource," she adds. The system is aware of available resources and alerts employees to those that are relevant. PROLIX is a skill-set management project that deals with the problem of fitting structured content to an employee's training necessities. "Right now most learning issues are dealt with by the HR department," says Volker Zimmerman, CEO of e-learning company IMC and coordinator of PROLIX. However, "company-based learning needs to be imbedded in business needs, so when a company changes its processes or procedures, the employee-training required to execute the changes develops in parallel," explains Zimmerman. The order processing department claims that "the system will deliver the exact skill-set required to execute a new, optimized business process."
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


Speed Is the Name of the Game for Researchers
University of Manchester (10/11/06)

Scientific and engineering researchers at the University of Manchester will use a prototype of IBM's BladeCentre QS20 system as they pursue projects involving sophisticated bioinformatics, molecular modeling, and engineering applications. The powerful hardware will provide researchers with supercomputer-like performance as they run their programs. The IBM BladeCentre QS20 system has super-fast Cell Broadband Engine (Cell BE) processors, which will enable ultra high-speed 3D rendering, compression, encryption, imaging, and other tasks. IBM, Sony, and Toshiba initially developed the Cell BE chip for the next round of game consoles, such as Sony's PlayStation 3, giving it the architecture and communications capabilities needed to deliver highly visual and immersive graphics in real time and at great speed. "We are early adopters of the IBM Cell BE system because it has the potential to give us significantly improved performance, take up less space, and consume less power," says Terry Hewitt, director of research computing at Manchester. "High performance computing systems built from systems based on the Cell Broadband Engine have the potential to change the economics associated with supercomputing."
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


Pixel-Efficient Digital Cameras
Technology Review (10/11/06) Greene, Katie

When a digital camera captures an image, 90 percent of the information gathered is lost when the image is converted into a JPEG file. Richard Baraniuk, professor of electrical engineering at Rice University, sees the process as wasteful, and an unnecessary strain that decreases a camera's lifespan. Along with his colleagues at Rice, Baraniuk is developing a camera that collects just enough information to recreate the image. The prototype the team developed uses micromirror technology, developed by Texas Instruments and used in HD projection TVs, that directs a small amount of information onto the camera's single sensor. Algorithms then recreate the image. Functionally, this is a single-pixel camera, but the image recreated has 100 times the resolution of what would traditionally be contained in a single pixel. The technology being explored is known as "compressive sensing." Hardware developed by Texas Instruments is based on thousands of micromirrors; when a picture is taken, the mirrors flip back and forth randomly up to 100,000 times per second, giving the algorithm an ideal sampling from which to recreate the image. Only a few hundred samples are needed in order to recreate the image with tens of thousands or hundreds of thousands of pixels. Currently, the speed at which the algorithms are executed needs to be increased, as well as the number of micromirrors and the speed at which they flip. A colleague of Baraniuk's at Rice, Kevin Kelly, foresees a version of the algorithms created by the team to appear in commercial cameras. He says, "You might buy a camera with a 2-megapixel sensor, but [the software] might give you a 20- or 30-megapixel image."
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


Robot Car to Tackle City Streets
Stanford Daily (10/11/06) Kanakia, Rahul

The Stanford Racing Team plans to develop a car that is able to navigate a simulated urban environment for 60 miles in under six hours, with no human guidance. The robot car must be able to operate just as an experienced human driver would: recognizing and avoiding pedestrians, bicycles, curbs, and holes, all while obeying traffic signals and laws. The team is involved in this technology for the "humanitarian aspect," says David Stevens, a fifth year Ph.D. candidate in computer science. With 43,000 deaths occurring on the road every day, automatic cars that would be far less prone to mistakes could save many lives. A robot car would save time and money in countless ways, specifically, the ability to "drop you off and go park itself some distance away," or allow several people to share a ride to work, because the car could take itself between the different locations, or allow people to get work done on their long drive home, rather than having their attention devoted to the road, says Stevens. Michael Montemerlo, senior researcher for Stanford's AI Labs and software leader for the Racing Team, notes that traffic and other problems could also be improved. "With communication between vehicles, you could increase [traffic flow] substantially so you actually get places faster on the highway. And you can imagine people driving who can't drive today, such as elderly people who can't see very well. Or even kids. Their parents could put them in the car and send them where they need to go," says Montemerlo. Despite the advancements in robot cars, Montemerlo does not think that the full scope of the technology will be realized in the immediate future, but he says incremental advances such as anti-lock brakes will ultimately lead to the point that "one day you'll wake up, and you'll have a car that's able to drive itself."
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


Warning Over 'Broken Up' Internet
BBC News (10/11/06) Waters, Darren

As the Internet grows globally, the possibility of separation into distinct networks looms. "If I look at the Internet in five years from now there are going to be very, very, very more Internet users in Asia than Europe or America," says Nitin Desai, chair of the UN Internet Governance Forum, an open body that technically has no membership, and thus no decision making power. "The types of uses for the Internet in India and China are very different from western countries--they are not commerce or media; they are essentially public service applications," Desai said, speaking at a conference this week in London arranged by .uk registry Nominet. The conference precedes the first-ever Internet Governance Forum, which takes place later this month in Athens. Concern arises from the fact that governments will need to be assured the system they use is "secure, safe, and reliable--that they cannot be suddenly thrown out of that system by some attack," Desai says. Additionally, many Chinese do not know the Latin alphabet, which is currently needed to access Web sites. Desai refers to the potential split-up as "Balkanization" of the Internet, made up of independent systems, such as a Chinese system using Chinese characters. Professor Howard Williams, who does work with the World Bank, points out that discussion of future Internet regulation is based upon the assumption of a single Internet. He asks, "Why would the technology we have at the moment be the ubiquitous technology across the world in the future?" In a related issue, the idea of Net neutrality "raises the prospect of a different sort of Web," Williams adds. Many have attacked the Senate's passing of a bill that allows Internet providers to give preferential treatment, including bandwidth and speed, claiming equal access is needed.
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


So You Want to Have a Career in IT? I Do�
ComputerWeekly.com (10/10/2006) Smith, Margaret

IT careers have now fallen out of favor with students, after a stint in the 1970s and 1980s when computing opportunities led young people to study math and science, and in the 1990s when telecoms, e-security, and Web design became a draw, writes Margaret Smith, former chief executive of CIO Connect. She says students have a negative perception of the IT industry today. Smith, who currently advises businesses and the U.K. government on IT and skills issues, acknowledges that she thought computing was boring when she was in school. Girls do not want to pursue computer science studies because they believe computers are for boys and nerds, and they have no interest in sitting in front of a computer all day. Students say learning how to build or fix a computer is not necessary, when they learn in other classes how to use a computer to complete assignments. Meanwhile, students are aware that tech jobs are being outsourced to India, and they say job opportunities are limited. The industry needs to do a better job of showing the public that IT is an exciting field with a range of career opportunities and also pays well, says Smith.
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


'Smart' Table Could Boost Brainstorming
New Scientist (10/09/06) Simonite, Tom

Researchers at Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands are optimistic about the prospects for a "smart" table that could be used to digitally move, stretch, and animate images. Jean-Bernard Marten, a visual interaction specialist who heads the project, says designers have taken to placing an object onto the board, importing its image into the system, and then manipulating it in early trials. "They especially liked the feeling of having the images under their hands," says Marten. The Blue Eye table was the subject of a presentation at the British Computing Society's Human Computer Interaction Group Conference at Queen Mary, University of London, in the United Kingdom in September. The system makes use of a glass surface with a digital camera overhead, and a video display underneath that consists of a projector and a mirror. After placing an object on the table, a user presses a button to have the system copy the image to the screen below, with the software working in the background to distinguish the image from its surroundings. "You can take objects, put them onto the board and they are instantly imported into the digital screen," says researcher Bart Naaijkens, who adds that existing digital images can be added to the system.
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


Sending Secret Messages Over Public Internet Lines Can Take Place With New Technique
Newswise (10/10/06)

Messages can be sent so faint over existing public fiber-optic networks such as those operated by Internet service providers that they would be extremely difficult to detect, or even decode. Princeton University researchers Evgenii Narimanov and Bernard Wu plan to present the technique during this week's Optical Society of America annual meeting in Rochester, N.Y. The researchers' method buries a secret message in the low levels of noise of real-world fiber-optic networks. The sender translates the message into an intense, ultrashort pulse of light, and then uses a commercially available optical CDMA encoder to spread it into a faint stream of optical data that can hide in the random jitters of the light waves that transmit information through a network. The recipient uses information on how the secret message was spread out to decode it, and uses an optical device to compress it into its original format. The public signal would be too intense for eavesdroppers to detect the message, even if they knew it was being sent. "As the method uses optical CDMA technology, which is still undergoing significant research, I don't think any government or corporation is implementing this technique yet," says Wu. They believe consumers could also use the inexpensive method when sending sensitive information to their bank.
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


Can Machines Have a Soul?
The Record (Ontario) (10/06/06) Simone, Rose

Physicists such as Janna Levin at Columbia University in New York continue to search for a "theory of everything," although 20th-century mathematicians Kurt Godel and Alan Turing believed there could never be a set of mathematical equations that explain how all forces and particles in the universe work. Speaking recently at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada, Levin says she is intrigued by the questions of whether a machine has a soul, whether humans are biological machines, and whether the universe is a huge quantum computer program. However, Levin and other physicists realize that nature itself has placed some limits on knowledge, considering quantum mechanics' "uncertainty principle" suggests everything about a particle cannot be known at one time. Moreover, subatomic particles can spin in "up" and "down" directions at the same time. Building a quantum computer, which would compute in more than one state at the same time, may allow physicists to come closer to an answer. Some physicists already believe the universe uses "bits" of information in such states. Nonetheless, Levin says new knowledge and discoveries have always resulted from what researchers considered to be the limits of knowledge in physics.
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


Are You Game?
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (10/08/06) David, Brian

Students in Pittsburgh Technical Institute's inaugural video design class use a program called Unreal Tournament to design battlefields on which they play a game of capture the flag involving firearms. Now that each student has finished creating an environment, class time is spent playing, but professor James Madine likens the class to "putting a pill in an apple and giving it to a horse. They're having fun and we're teaching computer science." The programming skills Madine teaches are applicable to fields such as of architecture, virtual tours, navigational systems that are visual rather than audio, and countless others. Next semester, Madine plans to focus on creating and modifying characters. While the world of professional video game design is as competitive as a professional sport to break into, Madine's students see it as a hobby that gives them skills which could be valuable when looking for careers. "This has enhanced the environmental atmosphere greatly," says Jeff Belsley, computer programming department chairman. "This makes the principles fun, something you want to do, and once you learn the concepts, you can use them out in the field." The biggest challenge for Madine is keeping up with the world of computer gaming, in which flexibility is a necessity. He says that it would be impossible to publish a textbook in the field because the two years needed to get it finished and published would mean it would be obsolete before being released.
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


Making Big Iron Fit the User at NCSA
HPC Wire (10/06/06) Vol. 15, No. 40, Bell, J. William

Tailored allocation management of NCSA's Tungsten cluster computer fulfills a critical need of the user community's research workflow, according to NCSA director Thom Dunning. "We planned for this sort of approach when we installed Tungsten, and the popularity and productivity among users really showed us that it was the right way to go," he explains. In a tailored allocation management scheme, specific pieces of the machine are reserved for specific users for given periods of time through advance planning. This enables users to complete important computations that must be performed in a particular timeframe, that require an inordinate amount of processors, or that otherwise are burdensome to the queuing system. "We want to be responsive to individual requests while still ensuring success for a broad range of people and disciplines," notes John Towns with NCSA's Persistent Infrastructure Directorate. "When we strike that balance, our users do special things." Around 40 percent of Tungsten is currently committed to tailored allocations. In one example, tailored allocations delivered more than sufficient capacity to University of Washington researcher David Baker and his team, who are refining protein structures by combining experimental data with bottom-up structure simulation.
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


Tackling Highjacking With Technology
CNN.com (10/06/06) Rosenblatt, Dana

A revolutionary in-flight security system called the Security of Aircraft in the Future European Environment (SAFEE) is being developed that could not only detect the presence of a terrorist threat, but safely land the plane in the case of an attempted hijacking. SAFEE uses sensors, cameras, microphones, and biometric devices to detect the presence of biological and chemical agents and monitor the behavior of passengers. The system even has an autopilot function that could lock the controls and take over flying the plane. Psychologists have found evidence that certain biometric "red flags" exist, including body language, visible stress, and even odors released, which can allow someone about to commit a terrorist act to be identified. "You cannot make a security system based only on technology, you have to focus on [the behavior of] people," says Omer Laviv of Athena GS3 Security Implementations. With regard to the recent hijacking of a Turkish airline by an unarmed man, which ended peacefully, "the SAFEE system would have alerted the crew to the issue before the hijacker was able to enter the cockpit," Laviv says. Although SAFEE is scheduled for completion between 2008 and 2010, developers must still win over passengers who are not happy with the prospect of being observed to such a degree. Currently, the system would include a memory bank, similar to a black box, that would erase all passenger information after the flight landed.
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


Nightmare Scenarios
Economist (10/05/06) Vol. 381, No. 8498, P. 14

The American fear of losing high-paying jobs to developing nations such as China and India may not be as well founded as many believe. Norman Augustine, a former boss of Lockheed Martin, says that "virtually no one's job seems safe." However, a large-scale study released by the McKinsey Global Institute reveals that the number of service job being taken offshore will probably only rise from 1.5 million in 2003 to 4.1 million in 2008, but, with 4.6 million American beginning new jobs every month, this figure is not alarming. The institute claims that only 13 percent of the educated developing world is currently capable of working for a Western multinational corporation in a high-level job. The reason for this is cultural, specifically language in China, a country that has twice the amount of engineers as America, but only 10 percent of which are equipped to work for a Western company. Weak intellectual property laws that discourage many corporations from moving operations business to China will also play a big role in the country's struggle to grow into a service powerhouse. India has its own difficulties, mostly stemming from poor government, and an infrastructure that is falling to pieces. A graduate unemployment rate of 17 percent, at a time when the tech industry is thriving, displays a lack of quality education. The other chief American fear is the inability to attract and retain skilled foreign workers. America remains the world's largest destination for foreign students, with 30 percent of the worldwide supply. The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology's David Zweig says the conception that a majority of talented foreign students leave America to work is not true. America's Universities, which are the global standard, give it a considerable edge in the battle for talent, and its business environment is far and away superior, in both availability of venture capital and the ability of companies to pay for the best employees. Robert Huggins Associates, a UK economics consulting firm found that all seven of the world's top "knowledge economies," which take into account patent registrations, investment in R&D, and the proportion of knowledge workers, are in the U.S.
Click Here to View Full Article - Web Link to Publication Homepage
to the top


Cobol Coders: Going, Going, Gone?
Computerworld (10/09/06)

Cobol is far from the preferred system of today's programmers and IT professionals, yet remains an essential part of business programming. A recent Computerworld survey found that 62 percent of IT managers questioned say they actively use Cobol; about 75 percent of those say they use it "a lot," and 58 percent say they're using it to create new programs. However, 36 percent of companies using Cobol said they are "gradually migrating away" from it, 16 percent said they get rid of it "every chance we get," and 25 percent said they would replace it, but find the task too risky or expensive. The dilemma presented by Cobol is that most of the programmers familiar with it are of retirement age (the survey shows that 52 percent of Cobol programmers hired in the past year are between 45 years old and 55 years old), while younger programmers would rather using other languages. Analysts say possible solutions to lack of Cobol programmers include outsourcing Cobol work, motivating existing workers to learn and use the language, and simply hiring the most well-qualified, business-oriented programmers available, regardless of Cobol experience. Terry Walker, manager of the application department at the Connecticut Judicial Branch, points out that training young programmers is no small-task, because Cobol is not even taught in school, and the experienced programmers don't have proper training skills. However, Phil Murphy, an analyst at Forrester Research, claims that hiring young programmers and converting the senior programmers' role into that of mentor, is a way around the dilemma. Consultant Mark Washik says that although it can be an inconvenience, Cobol is going to be here around a while longer.
Click Here to View Full Article
to the top


To submit feedback about ACM TechNews, contact: technews@hq.acm.org

To unsubscribe from the ACM TechNews Early Alert Service: Please send a separate email to listserv@listserv.acm.org with the line

signoff technews

in the body of your message.

Please note that replying directly to this message does not automatically unsubscribe you from the TechNews list.

ACM may have a different email address on file for you, so if you're unable to "unsubscribe" yourself, please direct your request to: technews-request@ acm.org

We will remove your name from the TechNews list on your behalf.

For help with technical problems, including problems with leaving the list, please write to: technews-request@acm.org

to the top

News Abstracts © 2006 Information, Inc.


© 2006 ACM, Inc. All rights reserved. ACM Privacy Policy.

About ACM | Contact us | Boards & Committees | Press Room | Membership | Privacy Policy | Code of Ethics | System Availability | Copyright © 2014, ACM, Inc.